Fire Security

Fire Alarm PanelFire Alarm Panel

The Fire Alarm Panel (FAP) is the heart of the fire alarm system. There are 2 different system types; Conventional and Analogue Addressable each with many differing FAPs.

Conventional FAPs are very cost effective and are used on small to medium size buildings requiring fire alarm systems. Devices connected to Conventional FAPs are grouped together and connected as zones to the FAP. If a device activates, a zone light on the FAP indicates showing the search area where the device activated. Searching the zone for the activated device (LED will be illuminated on the device) is then required to find the cause of the activation.

Graphic PackagesGraphic Package

Analogue Addressable FAPs work the same as a Conventional system with search zones but the added advantage is the detection devices connected to the FAP have unique individual addresses. When a device is activated the individual programmed location is displayed on a screen on the FAP. This speeds up finding the activated device as the location of the individual device is displayed at the FAP. This also allows for individual devices to be controlled from the FAP or groups of devices. In a conventional system only groups of devices can be controlled from the FAP.

Analogue Addressable systems can have the added advantage of a Graphic Package attached to the system. This Graphic Package allows the end user to have a display of their fire alarm system on a computer which is connected directly to the FAP or remotely if required. Should their fire alarm system activate the computer display will show via a layout drawing of their building exactly where the activation occurred. Also displayed is any information the operator requires like plant shut down requirements, who to notify, what actions should be made etc.

SmokeSmoke Detector

There are two main types of smoke detectors connected to a fire alarm system; Ionization smoke detectors and Photoelectric smoke detectors.

Ionization smoke detectors are best used for sensing fast flaming fires that give off very little smoke. Photoelectric smoke detectors are best used where slow smoldering fires with thicker smoke might occur.

Ideally a combination of both types of smoke detectors should be installed within a fire alarm system.

There are other differing smoke detectors called Multi Criteria smoke detectors. These smoke detectors can have a Photoelectric detector and Heat detector within the same detector. There are also CO2 Detectors which sense for carbon monoxide.
There are also other multi criteria detectors which have photo smoke detection, heat detection, infar red detection etc all in the same detector.

heatHeat Detector

A heat detector as the name suggests activates when a certain heat range is met. There are differing heat ranges for heat detectors which is signified on the heat detector by a colour dot.

A Blue dot has a heat range of 54°C and 61°C
A Red dot has a heat range of 62°C and 71°C
A Yellow dot has a heat range of 72°C and 80°C
A Green dot has a heat range of 81°C and 105°C
A white dot has a heat range of 106°C and 121°C
A Black dot has a heat range of >121°C

ManualCall Point

Call Points are a manual way of activating a fire alarm system should a fire be noticed. Manual Call Points must be a two action device to activate and to stop unwanted activations. First you need to break the cover glass or plastic and then activate the switch. Once activated the fire alarm can only be reset at the FAP. Returning the switch to its normal location will not reset the fire alarm system.

This cover is designed to go over a Manual Call Point to stop malicious activations. The Stopper has an audible alarm connected to the cover. Once the outside cover is lifted and before the glass/plastic can be broken to access the switch the audible alarm will sound.

StopperStopper Cover

Smoke Beams are designed as a line of sight device for areas where normal smoke detectors are not suited due to maintenance issues like height or large areas needing to be protected.
The beam detector has two parts. A transmitter/ receiver which projects a beam onto a reflective surface which is then reflected back to the main unit. Should smoke interrupt this beam a signal is sent to the FAP. Should the beam be blocked by an object then a fault signal is generated.

Duct DetectorDuct Detector

Duct Detectors are mounted on the outside of ventilation ducts with two tubes connected inside the duct to the Duct Detector. Should smoke enter the ventilation duct the smoke is forced into the probe and then into the Duct Detector. Inside the Duct Detector is a smoke detector which senses the smoke and signals the FAP. The air that is forced into the duct detector is then sent back into the ventilation duct by the exhaust probe

Smoke DoorSmoke Door Hold Open Devices

Smoke Door Hold Open Devices are connected to the smoke detectors either side of a smoke stop door. If the smoke detector activates then the door holder de-energizes and shuts the door via the doors fitted door closer. The Door Hold Open Device can also be connected to the FAP so fire activation by the FAP will also shut the smoke stop door.

Remote MimicRemote Mimic

Fire alarm systems can have Remote Mimics to show or state where fire alarm activations have occurred. FAPs can have many Remote Mimics fitted to suit the buildings needs. Remote Mimics can either be LED Mimics or for Annalogue Addressable systems LCD (Text) Mimics with full controls.

Aspirated FireAspirated Fire Alarm System

Aspirated Fire Alarm Systems are systems that check the protected areas air by drawing the air through specially fitted pipework back to a controller. This controller filters the air and then passes the air through a sensing chamber before exhausting the return air back into the protected space.
The controller then shows the smoke contamination by obscuration level on a bar graph on the unit. The levels can be programmed to suit the environment and the speed at which an alarm is wished to be generated if smoke is detected.
The most common type of Aspirated System is called VESDA (Very Early Smoke Detection Apparatus).
The output signal of the Aspirated System can then be connected to a FAP for further signaling of alerting devices or connection to the New Zealand Fire Service.

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